Bonding _____ than intermolecular forces. Therefore, it will experience London Dispersion Forces which are forces that exist among non-polar molecules. Ensign, intermolecular forces 41 To visualize intermolecular forces, reference everything to absolute zero, where molecular motion is at a minimum, and everything is solid. This force can create a type of bond between polar molecules as well, such as a hydrogen bond. Click and drag the molecle to rotate it. Acronym Definition; CL: Clear (Morse Code abbreviation) CL: Class: CL: Chile (country code, top level domain) CL: Champions' League (Union of European Football Associations) CL: C. The molecule XCl 5– has a square pyramidal shape. The London dispersion force, the force between two nonpolar molecules, is the weakest of the intermolecular forces. the intermolecular forces between molecules of PCl5 are larger than the ones in PCl3 – thus a higher boiling point the PCl5 molecule is much larger than the PCl3 and the larger number of protons and electrons in the PCl5 molecule make the dispersion attractions greater. H 2, O 2, Cl 2 gases, Br 2 liquid, P is P 4 and S is S 8 solid covalent molecules. Note: if the explanation is clearly intramolecular = CE (b) Electron pair or lone pair donated (1) Do not accept ‘donation of electrons’ From chloride ion to Al or AlCl3 (1) 2. A) CH3CHOHCH3, isopropyl alcohol B) Kr, krypton C) PCl5, phosphorus pentachloride D) CCl4, carbon tetrachloride. Question 2 Roman numerals are used when the compound contains what PCl 5? Question 22 Phosphorus pentachloride. HF Hydrogen bonding forces Molecules that have hydrogen attached to an O, N, or F can form hydrogen bonds. 2: weak intermolecular forces or Van der Waals forces Diamonds: macromolecular structure Strong / covalent bonds (½) need to be broken (½) 1 1 (c) diamond: compact while graphite: layered / hexagon structure ½ x 2 OR diamond: 4 bonds per C atom; graphite 3 bonds per C atom ½ x 2. Energy of particles – may enable particles to move relative to each other or escape attraction. a London dispersion forces b Hydrogen bonding c Dipole dipole interactions d from CHM 113 at Arizona State University. (b) Give one argument for why a student might expect the boiling point of PCl. Dipole-dipole Interactions. So, London Dispersion has an effect on all molecules, and these temporary dipoles are the temporary shift in electrons as they change their positions. WKS 4-8 cont. In view of this observation, calculate the partial pressure of PCl5 and PCl3 in the flask at 252 C. MSJChem – Topic 4 – Intermolecular forces Intermolecular forces 1) Arrange the following in terms of increasing strength: Hydrogen bonding London dispersion forces Dipole-dipole forces 2) Identify the strongest type of intermolecular forces in the following molecules: a) Cl 2 f) CH 3 Cl b) HCl g) H 2 O c) HF h) CH 3 OH d) CH 4 i) C 2 H 6 e. Tags: PCl 5. The relative strengths of these interactions are London (dispersion) forces < dipole-dipole forces < hydrogen bonds. The enthalpy change, Δ H , for the decomposition of PCl 5 (g) is positive. b) 4NH3 + 5O2 ( 4NO + 6H2O [ ] denotes concentration. Determine the intermolecular forces in the compounds and then arrange the compounds according to the strength of those forces. Intermolecular Forces For each of the following molecules, identify the strongest type of intermolecular forces (van der Waals’ forces, dipole–dipole attractions, hydrogen bonding) they exhibit in the liquid state. Examples: NF 3, NO, NO 2, H 2 O, SF 6, PCl 5, H 2 S, NH 3, N 2 O 4 etc. 66 sulfonyl transfer reagent O sulfonylation of alcohols 2 for conversion to chlorides 3 or intermolecular 4 and intramolecular 5 displacements vicinal diols for epoxidation 6 1 3 diols for oxetane formation 7 carboxylic acids for esterification. (iii) Halogens are coloured. Predict the molecular shape of each of the following: a. MSJChem – Topic 4 – Intermolecular forces Intermolecular forces 1) Arrange the following in terms of increasing strength: Hydrogen bonding London dispersion forces Dipole-dipole forces 2) Identify the strongest type of intermolecular forces in the following molecules: a) Cl 2 f) CH 3 Cl b) HCl g) H 2 O c) HF h) CH 3 OH d) CH 4 i) C 2 H 6 e. If so it likely has the strongest intermolecular forces. Therefore, DS = positive Now, ΔG = ΔH – TΔS Both −∆H and -T∆S(since ∆S is positive) result into large negative ∆G. WKS 4-8 cont. As scientists we can predict a lot about how molecules react chemically and their physical properties by looking at Lewis structures and molecular geometry. b) 3 points SO2 is the least ideal gas. Those should be stronger than the intermolecular forces in both. Melting or boiling point is proportional to the strength of intermolecular forces. Intermolecular forces Common questions types: 1. CHEM1312 Molecular Interactions cont. intermolecular forces have high vapor pressures. Hydrogen Bonding, Dipole-Dipole & Ion-Dipole Forces: Strong Intermolecular Forces The Octet Rule and Lewis Structures of Atoms London Dispersion Forces (Van Der Waals Forces): Weak Intermolecular. For example, since the PCl 5 molecule has been determined to have D3h symmetry, the chart tells us that it has trigonal bipyramidal geometry using VSEPR and Lewis dot structure notation. 5)The molecules in HCCl3(l) would be expected to have stronger intermolecular forces than those in HCF3(l). Therefore this molecule is polar. ) (b) What are the characteristics of the surrounding atoms? 4. Alternatively, one may seek a fundamental, unifying theory that is able to explain the various types of interactions such as hydrogen bonding, van der Waals forces and dipole. As the size of the atom or structure increases, so does the. If a question has parts, marks must be awarded on the right hand side for each part. BRILLIANT PUBLIC SCHOOL, SITAMARHI (Affiliated up to +2 level to C. Section 5 Molecular Geometry Chapter 6 Molecular Geometry The properties of molecules depend not only on the bonding of atoms but also on molecular geometry: the – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow. At 163°C, the phosphorus(V) chloride converts to a simple molecular form containing PCl 5 molecules. The units of k are determined by units of concentration and the various powers; thus, they depend on the reaction. Intermolecular forces allow different particles to be attracted to each other to form solids and liquids. Gases can be entered as molar volumes (n/V), or moles of gas per liter of mixture. Since the intermolecular attractive forces differ in the two substances, the enthalpy of vaporization will differ. Intermolecular hydrogen bonding leads to the solid state of water, ice, being less dense than its liquid state. Hydrogen bonding - H to F, O, or N; like dipoles Liquids and Solids. intermolecular forces in naphthalene and benzene? what's with their attraction? Answer Save. (C) the higher the vapor pressure. Bonding & Intermolecular Forces (Chapter 7) 11. induced dipole force. Their melting points are 1074 K and 3827 K, respectively. (Shapes of molecules with pi bonds not to be considered. intermolecular. Click the "Start Quiz" button to proceed. London Dispersion Forces - the force of attraction between all molecules (any two at one time), created by temporary dipoles, which are caused by the movement of electrons around two atoms. Difluoromethane (HFC32) is under development as a replacement for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in some refrigeration applications. ) (b) What are the characteristics of the surrounding atoms? 4. Carbon is the central atom, which is represented by the black sphere, the nitrogen represented by the blue sphere, and the five hydrogen atoms are represented by the white spheres. intermolecular forces of attraction? a) Neoprene b) Terylene c) Polythene d) Polystyrene Ans. NOTE All the coloured pictures have java-enabled rotatable models available. As the size of the atom or structure increases, so does the. The unit of the dipole moment is the debye, where 1 debye is 3. Which substance would contain the strongest intermolecular force? answer choices. Hydrogen Peroxides AX form is an AX2E2, meaning that is bent with 109. The electrons of one molecule are attracted to the nucleus of the other molecule, while repelled by the other molecule's electrons. For example, water and kerosene do not mix together. Although the bond P-Cl is polar covalent the geometry of the bonds is such (trigonal bipyramid with all bonds identical) that the individual dipole moments cancel out and the molecule has no net dipole moment. H 2 S bent b. How many mol of PCl5 are in 0. For an organic liquid, such as acetone, the intermolecular dipole-dipole interactions are significantly weaker. Propanone is a useful solvent as it has polar and non polar characteristics so can dissolve a wide range of solutes. There are a total of 40 valence electrons in the PCl5 Lewis structure. Intermolecular forces observed between atoms and molecules can be described phenomenologically as occurring between permanent and instantaneous dipoles, as outlined above. Van der Waals forces: the two weakest intermolecular attractions Dipole interactions: Polar molecules are attracted to one another (oppositely charged parts). • PCl 5 and SF 6 have more • Ones with MORE called EXPANDED Octet. and BF3 is trigonal planar. The forces that hold the atoms in a CCl 4 molecule together are _____, and the forces that hold the molecules together in sample are _____. 3 How polar bonds and shape affect the polarity of a molecule 24. Do not conduct heat or electricity. Although intermolecular attractions are weaker than either ionic or covalent bonds, their importance should not be underestimated – just as one example, they are responsible for the different states of matter! There are two categories of intermolecular forces: 1. Hydrogen Bonding, Dipole-Dipole & Ion-Dipole Forces: Strong Intermolecular Forces The Octet Rule and Lewis Structures of Atoms London Dispersion Forces (Van Der Waals Forces): Weak Intermolecular. Each molecule listed below is formed by sharing electrons between atoms when the atoms within the molecule are bonded together. what about between molecules of aromatic compounds such as benzene? is it van der waals as well?. H+ 2 Explanation: All of the species have a bond order of 0. If a question has parts, marks must be awarded on the right hand side for each part. Bonding & Intermolecular Forces (Chapter 7) 11. Polar molecules have a permanent dipole moment. Types of Intermolecular Forces N 7 14. surface tension of a liquid B. Examples of intermolecular bonds include dipole-dipole forced, dispersion forces and hydrogen bonds. WKS 4-8 cont. Alcohols have strong intermolecular Hydrogen bonds whereas ethers have weak dipole - dipole interactions, dispersion forces or Vander Wall forces depending upon the number of carbon atoms involved in alkyl group of ether. Intermolecular Forces: Sulfur HexaFlouride is a non-polar structure due to symmetry and bonds. The intermolecular attractive forces in 1-propanol are dispersion forces and hydrogen-bonding. I also know the strength of a dipole-dipole force is based on the electronegativity difference. 2 molecules? I. CCl 4 tetrahedral c. Justify your answers. Therefore this molecule is polar. Then think about adding heat, and ask what happens. a)(i) Ozone decomposes into O2 with the evolution of heat, i. Why does gasoline (C 8 H 18. about intermolecular forces and compare their strengths. CH 3 COOH + PCl 5. Part E: Intermolecular Forces Answer the following questions about intermolecular forces 1) What is the difference between intramolecular forces and intermolecular forces? 2) List intramolecular forces in order from strongest to weakest. Survismeter tracks non-covalent interactions,- authorSTREAM Presentation. When an atom loses on or more electrons it becomes negatively charged and we call it a cation. hydrogen bonding vs. Hess's Law Worksheet ‐ answers 1. is expected to have a lower boiling point than ClF. 2)The molecules in SO2(g) exhibit dipole-dipole intermolecular interactions. The surface tension of water at various temperatures is given in the data table below. CS2 / H2O 2. These are the strongest of the intermolecular forces. As you may know, I have already explained about the molecular shape of CO2, SO2, SO3, SF4, and XeF4. Hydrogen bonding intermolecular forces are stronger than London Dispersion intermolecular forces. BF3 NH3 PCl5 CH4 SF6 PRACTICE POLARITY OF MOLECULES By knowing a molecules shape and if it. Intermolecular forces are also covered which means by reading this I have a full picture of the molecule. The dipole moment is a vector quantity that has both magnitude and direction. In view of this observation, calculate the partial pressure of PCl5 and PCl3 in the flask at 252 C. The polar qualities, or intermolecular forces, similar to what is found in water molecules, cause the various layers of tetrahedrons to adhere strongly to each other.   Scientists found out that 1 mole of any substance contains 6. It is used in dehydrations to make nitriles isocyanides and diimides. Part E: Intermolecular Forces Answer the following questions about intermolecular forces 1) What is the difference between intramolecular forces and intermolecular forces? 2) List intramolecular forces in order from strongest to weakest. Bonding _____ than intermolecular forces. A) CH3CHOHCH3, isopropyl alcohol B) Kr, krypton C) PCl5, phosphorus pentachloride D) CCl4, carbon tetrachloride. The most important polar molecule on Earth is water. They will interact with each other to model the relative strengths of the three types of intermolecular forces. SO2 bent (lone pair on S, two double bonds) d. The strongest intermolecular forces in each case are: "CHF"_3: dipole - dipole interaction "OF"_2: London dispersion forces "HF": hydrogen bonding "CF"_4: London dispersion forces Each of these molecules is made up of polar covalent bonds; however in order for the molecule itself to be polar, the polarities must not cancel one another out. Grade Level. hydrogen bonding vs. So, London Dispersion has an effect on all molecules, and these temporary dipoles are the temporary shift in electrons as they change their positions. Efect of Intermolecular forces on melting and boiling points of molecular covalent substances:Since melting or boiling result from a progressive weakening of the attractive forces between the covalent molecules, the stronger the intermolecular force is, the more energy is required to melt the solid or boil the liquid. All molecules and atoms have London dispersion (i. Remember the most dots an element can get is 8. SCl4_Hybrid. forces/attractions. They are mostly related to the free surfaces of. Intermolecular forces observed between atoms and molecules can be described phenomenologically as occurring between permanent and instantaneous dipoles, as outlined above. PCl5, I3‐, SF6, XeF4 11. At 163°C, the phosphorus(V) chloride converts to a simple molecular form containing PCl 5 molecules. Intermolecular Forces Worksheet Answers are on page 3 & 4. Using electron pair repulsion theory to explain shapes of molecules of type ABn for up to four pairs of electrons around the central atom (refer to bond angles). Examples: Sugar, ethanol, ethanoic acid etc. For example, the strong hydrogen bonds between water molecules hold them tightly in liquid phase. 5 degree angles. Carbon tetrachloride, also known as tetrachloromethane, is a compound containing carbon and chlorine. 66 sulfonyl transfer reagent O sulfonylation of alcohols 2 for conversion to chlorides 3 or intermolecular 4 and intramolecular 5 displacements vicinal diols for epoxidation 6 1 3 diols for oxetane formation 7 carboxylic acids for esterification. dispersion IV. Their melting points are 1074 K and 3827 K, respectively. Answer: This is because of their 3 dimensional arrangement, where I'm guessing that you are thinking from a 2-dimensional point of view. only for molecules with hydrogen bonding. Predict the molecular shape of each of the following: a. CH 3-O-CH 3 Dipole-dipole forces. C is a polar compound with dipole-dipole intermolecular forces (There is a lone pair on the phosphorus). So, London Dispersion has an effect on all molecules, and these temporary dipoles are the temporary shift in electrons as they change their positions. Our videos prepare you to succeed in your college classes. 5)The molecules in HCCl3(l) would be expected to have stronger intermolecular forces than those in HCF3(l). 0297 mol PCl5. 10-Intermolecular Forces 11-Thermochemistry 12-Colligative Properties 13-Thermodynamics 14-Gas Phase, Solubility, Trigonal Bipyramidal Molecule PCl 5. Electrons are not always shared equally between two bonding atoms; one atom might exert more of a force on the electron cloud than the other. Examples of intermolecular bonds include dipole-dipole forced, dispersion forces and hydrogen bonds. Hydrogen Bonding, Dipole-Dipole & Ion-Dipole Forces: Strong Intermolecular Forces The Octet Rule and Lewis Structures of Atoms London Dispersion Forces (Van Der Waals Forces): Weak Intermolecular. This ScienceStruck post provides you with the Lewis dot structure diagram and the polarity of carbon tetrachloride. 1 Electron sharing in a covalent bond 24. Explain the difference between bonds and intermolecular forces. Give an example for each type of intermolecular force. A cylinder contains a gas which is saturated with 12 torr of water vapour. Acronym Definition; CL: Clear (Morse Code abbreviation) CL: Class: CL: Chile (country code, top level domain) CL: Champions' League (Union of European Football Associations) CL: C. Thus, condensed phases in molecular substances result because there is an attraction between regions of opposite charge on the molecules. They will interact with each other to model the relative strengths of the three types of intermolecular forces. M1 can be earned by a general explanation of coordinate bonding, even if the electron pair is said to come from Al. Although London dispersion forces exist amongst all molecules, for what types of molecules are they the only major intermolecular force? 6. What are AX 2, AX 3, AX 4, AX 5, and AX 6????? AX # is another type of chemical representation. Calculate ∆H for the reaction: C2H4 (g) + H2 (g) → C2H6 (g), from the following data. Predict the molecular shape of each of the following: a. B) The “sea” of electrons between the atoms creates relatively weak bonding C) The intermolecular forces between the molecules are weak compared to ionic or covalent bonds. Calculate the molarity of a solution that contains 67. BF3 NH3 PCl5 CH4 SF6 PRACTICE POLARITY OF MOLECULES By knowing a molecules shape and if it. Do the problems on your own BEFORE looking at the answers. a) PCl5 ( PCl3 + Cl2. The units of k are determined by units of concentration and the various powers; thus, they depend on the reaction. SO2 bent (lone pair on S, two double bonds) d. (b) Give one argument for why a student might expect the boiling point of PCl. Molecules are held together by attractive and intramolecular forces (bonds within a molecule). How many mol of PCl5 are in 0. Intermolecular forces are generally characterized by polymer scientists in terms of the material’s cohesive energy density (CED), a measure of the energy needed to separate and remove completely one molecular unit from its neighbors. Although London dispersion forces exist amongst all molecules, for what types of molecules are they the only major intermolecular force? 6. Which of the following has an incomplete octet in its Lewis structure? A) SO 2 B) ICl C) SF 2 D) F 2 E) NO 11. CH 3 COOH + PCl 5. Hydrogen-bonding is a strong intermolecular attractive force and causes the boiling point of NH3 to be high. It has the stongest attractive forces ( van der Waals forces or dipole-dipole interactions). Chemistry Unit 7 Intermolecular Forces Worksheet 1. Study 11 Intermolecular Forces flashcards from Gabby R. See full list on opentextbc. intermolecular forces in naphthalene and benzene? what's with their attraction? Answer Save. Ensign, intermolecular forces 41 To visualize intermolecular forces, reference everything to absolute zero, where molecular motion is at a minimum, and everything is solid. (4) (Total 11 marks). From: Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, 2001. This is because the packing of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus is much more compact than you can ever get from. The intermolecular attractive forces in 1-propanol are dispersion forces and hydrogen-bonding. For example, the strong hydrogen bonds between water molecules hold them tightly in liquid phase. Use L for London forces, D for dipole-dipole forces, H for H-bonds and I for ion-ion forces. following properties:. Answer: (i) It is because ‘P’ has +5 oxidation in PCl 5. We know that while carbon dioxide is a non-polar molecule, we can still freeze it (and we can also freeze all other non-polar substances). determining number of lone electron pairs, molecule shape, VSEPR theory, bond + molecule polarity, intermolecular forces and affect on physical properties. 3: CH3CH2OH: Dispersion, Dipole-Dipole,. 8 &9 - Bonding Name_____ MULTIPLE CHOICE. Because BF3 is a non-polar molecule, I'd say the answer is london dispersion forces. This "pull" is termed electronegativity and measures the attraction for electrons a particular atom has. For substances of comparable size, boiling point increases as the strength of intermolecular forces increases. Question 2 Roman numerals are used when the compound contains what PCl 5? Question 22 Phosphorus pentachloride. is nonpolar. Part E: Intermolecular Forces Answer the following questions about intermolecular forces 1) What is the difference between intramolecular forces and intermolecular forces? 2) List intramolecular forces in order from strongest to weakest. non-polar solutes will dissolve in non-polar solvents. What are Collections? California Subject Examination for Teachers - Preparation Resources. Real molecules exhibit attractive forces, thus leading to fewer collisions with the walls and a lower pressure. London forces - weak attractive forces in molecules; vary as 1/d 7; only intermolecular forces among symmetric nonpolars. 4)H2O(l) is expected to have a higher boiling point than H2S(l). txt) or read online for free. F = force r = distance q = charge = n ·e U. gif This diagram shows the sp 2 hybridization in C 2 H 4. The bonds in the molecule PCl5 are moderately covalent. 23 36 Trends in Intermolecular Force Strength When determining which substance has the stronger total intermolecular forces or the higher boiling point, follow the following guidelines: 1. A food additive that acts as an antioxidant is a) BHA b) Saccharin c) Sugar syrup d) Salt Ans. only for molecules with metallic bonds. Hydrogen bonding - H to F, O, or N; like dipoles Liquids and Solids. The mass of the atom, and the packing of the atoms. 3) List intermolecular forces in order from strongest to weakest. Dipole-dipole forces The strongest intermolecular force in a polar molecule that cannot form hydrogen bonds is the dipole-dipole force e. A, as a larger molecule, will have stronger intermolecular forces than B. 34×10 −30 C ·m. High relative molecular mass carboxylic acids are solids for the same reasons, i. on StudyBlue. Explain, in terms of intermolecular forces, why hydrogen has a lower boiling point than hydrogen bromide. Once we know how many valence electrons there are in PCl5 we can distribute them around the central atom and attempt to fill the outer shells of each atom. The unit of the dipole moment is the debye, where 1 debye is 3. The P stands for Phosphorus, while the Cl represents chloride. For example, the forces that hold together two H 2 O molecules to each other. H2S bent b. COVALENT BONDS Intermolecular Forces (IMF): Attractions BETWEEN MOLECULES. On a piece of graph paper, plot the data from the data table. As scientists we can predict a lot about how molecules react chemically and their physical properties by looking at Lewis structures and molecular geometry. Carbon is the central atom, which is represented by the black sphere, the nitrogen represented by the blue sphere, and the five hydrogen atoms are represented by the white spheres. pdf), Text File (. (solid, liquid or gas). MSJChem – Topic 4 – Intermolecular forces Intermolecular forces 1) Arrange the following in terms of increasing strength: Hydrogen bonding London dispersion forces Dipole-dipole forces 2) Identify the strongest type of intermolecular forces in the following molecules: a) Cl 2 f) CH 3 Cl b) HCl g) H 2 O c) HF h) CH 3 OH d) CH 4 i) C 2 H 6 e. Baxley Intermolecular Forces Worksheet Answers 1. If a question has parts, marks must be awarded on the right hand side for each part. CS2 / H2O 2. a)(i) Ozone decomposes into O2 with the evolution of heat, i. The geometry which allows three sets to be as far apart as possible is a planar triangular geometry. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. (a) A complete Lewis electron-dot diagram of a molecule of ethyl methanoate is given below. Deduce the equilibrium constant expression, K c , for the decomposition of PCl 5 (g). 0297 mol PCl5. At very high pressures, the gas becomes less compressible (Z increases with P ), as the gas molecules begin to occupy an increasingly significant fraction of the total gas volume. sp2 1 point is earned for the correct answer. The unit of the dipole moment is the debye, where 1 debye is 3. Petrucci: Section 10-7. What kind of intermolecular forces do each of the following exhibit? (a) HCl (b) HF (c) CCl 4 23. (a) Give one argument for why a student might expect the boiling point of PCl.   Scientists found out that 1 mole of any substance contains 6. Intermolecular Forces: Sulfur HexaFlouride is a non-polar structure due to symmetry and bonds. The lattice energy is the change in energy when separated gaseous ions are packed together to form an ionic solid. about intermolecular forces and compare their strengths. H 2 S bent b. Hydrogen bonds exist between atoms of hydrogen on one molecule and atoms of either oxygen, fluorine, or nitrogen on a neighboring molecule. Summary of Intermolecular Forces Figure 10. Intermolecular forces observed between atoms and molecules can be described phenomenologically as occurring between permanent and instantaneous dipoles, as outlined above. PCl5, I3‐, SF6, XeF4 11. BrF no shape d. a HCl b O2 c NH3 d CHl3 e OCl2 f SiH4 g N2 h HF i NBr3. (solid, liquid or gas). These three hybrid orbitals overlap with 1s orbitals of hydrogen atoms to form three N–H sigma bonds. There are two intermolecular forces that are available right now. Equilibrium constant and units MCQs, equilibrium constant and units quiz answers pdf to study high school chemistry for online degree courses. Dissociation takes place according to the equation PCl 5 (g) PCl 3 (g) + Cl 2 (g). 3 How polar bonds and shape affect the polarity of a molecule 24. Difluoromethane (HFC32) is under development as a replacement for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in some refrigeration applications. intramolecular forces are WITHIN the molecule - for example, these would be covalent bonding, ionic bonding. Intermolecular forces are those forces between molecules. (4) (Total 11 marks). van der Waals) forces. 22 g/mol = 0. The above photo is a 3-D model of the molecule methylamine, also known as CH3NH2. These forces can be divided into three categories: (1) dipole-dipole, (2) dipole-induced dipole, and (3) induced dipole-induced dipole. strength of their intermolecular forces would be — A X < Y < Z B Y < X < Z C Z < Y < X D Y < Z < X 9 15 What is the empirical formula of the compound with the molecular formula A CH B C D CH 26 CH 4 CH 2 CH 612? VA516984_Chem Released 3/3/10 9:04 AM Page 9. For the PCl5 Lewis structure we first count the valence electrons for the PCl5 molecule using the periodic table. Chemistry Unit 7 Intermolecular Forces Worksheet 1. (i) Identify the hybridization of the valence electrons of the carbon atom labeled Cw. INTERMOLECULAR FORCES A variety of forces can attract one molecule to another. The London dispersion force, the force between two nonpolar molecules, is the weakest of the intermolecular forces. 4 Phase Diagrams; 10. For example, since the PCl 5 molecule has been determined to have D3h symmetry, the chart tells us that it has trigonal bipyramidal geometry using VSEPR and Lewis dot structure notation. Do the problems on your own BEFORE looking at the answers. This means that all attraction forces inside the molecule rely on weak London Dispersion Forces which only strengthen in far larger atoms. The molcule of H2O2 happens to be quite polar, with the oxygen ends being extremely negative and the hydrogen ends being positive. Those should be stronger than the intermolecular forces in both. Stronger is the intermolecular forces, higher will be the boiling point of. Which of these molecules show resonance? A) I, II B) II, IV C) II, V D) III, IV E) III, V 10. Electron density instantaneously changes at each moment in time, forming weak temporary dipoles, which we term dispersion interactions between particles. As a result, the intermolecular forces become weak, resulting in lower boiling point. Polar molecules have a permanent dipole moment. between HF molecules Hydrogen bonding forces Molecules that have hydrogen attached to an O, N,. They will interact with each other to model the relative strengths of the three types of intermolecular forces. Please explain. The three bond dipole moments are then 120° apart and of equal magnitude all directed at the more electronegative hydrogen atoms. Tags: PCl 5. Simplified Explanation. (a) What are the characteristics of the central atom? (size, electronegativity, etc. between H 2 O molecules Hydrogen bonding forces Molecules that have hydrogen attached to an O, N, or F can form hydrogen bonds. Solid phosphorus(V) chloride doesn't conduct electricity because the ions aren't free to move. Which substance would contain the strongest intermolecular force? answer choices. Ionic compounds typically exist in the gaseous phase at room temperature. intermolecular-forces covalent-compounds ionic-compounds 21k. Statement 3 is incorrect as the bond angles in molecules or ions depend on the magnitude of electron pairs repulsion and not hydrogen bonding. Question: 1) For The Following, Determine What Intermolecular Forces Are Present And If There Is A Net Dipole Moment A) SeBr2 B) CS2 C) AlFCl2 D) XeOF2 E) CHF3 F) PCl5 G) SCl4 H) OF2 I) LiF. Lecture-12 Electronic Spectroscopy; Lecture-13 Rotational and Vibrational Spectroscopy; Lecture-14 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy; Lecture-15 Other spectroscopic methods; Module-4 Solid. Hydrogen bonding intermolecular forces are stronger than London Dispersion intermolecular forces. Types: Intermolecular forces are _____ neighboring molecules _____ than intramolecular forces. Question: 1) For The Following, Determine What Intermolecular Forces Are Present And If There Is A Net Dipole Moment A) SeBr2 B) CS2 C) AlFCl2 D) XeOF2 E) CHF3 F) PCl5 G) SCl4 H) OF2 I) LiF. 5 The Solid State of Matter; 10. Intermolecular Forces · Intermolecular forces are electrostatic attractions between molecules. is 76 ˚C, and the boiling point of PCl. Although intermolecular attractions are weaker than either ionic or covalent bonds, their importance should not be underestimated – just as one example, they are responsible for the different states of matter! There are two categories of intermolecular forces: 1. The polar bonds in "OF"_2, for example, act in. Once we know how many valence electrons there are in PCl5 we can distribute them around the central atom and attempt to fill the outer shells of each atom. Solved: What is the Lewis dot structure for PCl3? | Study. A, as a larger molecule, will have stronger intermolecular forces than B. 1 Gases 14 6 Candidates should be able to: (a) explain the pressure and behaviour of ideal gas using the kinetic theory; (b) explain qualitatively, in terms of molecular size and intermolecular forces, the conditions. gif This diagram shows the sp 3 d hybridization in SCl 4. From: Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, 2001. London dispersion forces involve what are called. and BF3 is trigonal planar. Intermolecular forces Common questions types: 1. Intermolecular forces are those forces between molecules. intermolecular forces between aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons? Ok, so I know that intermolecular forces such as weak van der waals exist between molecules of aliphatic compounds. I'll tell you the polar or nonpolar list below. (Shapes of molecules with pi bonds not to be considered. Therefore this molecule is non-polar. In fact the molar mass of Methane is so minuscule that it is sometimes mentioned as a possible lifting gas because its density is less than that of air. It has molar mass 46. H2Se H2S H2Po H2Te Chem128 Dr. This ScienceStruck post provides you with the Lewis dot structure diagram and the polarity of carbon tetrachloride. Electrons are not always shared equally between two bonding atoms; one atom might exert more of a force on the electron cloud than the other. Hydrogen bonds are an example of a strong IMF between polar molecules. electrical conductivity 10. Thus due to the absence of intermolecular H - bonds in. Weaker version of ionic bonds Dispersion forces: The weakest of all intermolecular interactions, caused by motion of electrons. 00 atmosphere. The alkyl halides, similar to the amines, may be primary, secondary or tertiary depending on which carbon the halogen is in. Difluoromethane (HFC32) is under development as a replacement for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in some refrigeration applications. Hydrogen bonds exist between atoms of hydrogen on one molecule and atoms of either oxygen, fluorine, or nitrogen on a neighboring molecule. For example, the forces that hold together two H 2 O molecules to each other. High relative molecular mass carboxylic acids are solids for the same reasons, i. From: Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, 2001. are best characterized as London dispersion forces. A) London dispersion force B) dipole-dipole C) ion-ion D) ion-dipole E) hydrogen bonding 16) Of the following substances, only _____ has London dispersion forces as the only intermolecular force. Survismeter tracks non-covalent interactions,- authorSTREAM Presentation. Lecture-10 Non-covalent interactions 1: Intermolecular Forces; Lecture-11 Non-covalent interactions 2 : Structures of Liquids; Module-3 Molecular Spectroscopy. intermolecular force in a polar molecule is the dipole-dipole force d. At 163°C, the phosphorus(V) chloride converts to a simple molecular form containing PCl 5 molecules. A and B are hydrocarbons with dispersion intermolecular forces. As the C chain gets longer the hydrocarbons change from gas to liquid to solid. The atoms of non-metals are covalently bonded and usually held together by weak intermolecular attractive forces - associated with small molecules e. gif This diagram shows the sp 3 d 2 hybridization in SCl 6. Hydrogen bonds exist between atoms of hydrogen on one molecule and atoms of either oxygen, fluorine, or nitrogen on a neighboring molecule. Consider any molecule made up of a central atom with an expanded octet surrounded by other atoms. It has molar mass 46. The weak intermolecular bonds in liquids and solids are therefore often called van der Waals forces. In view of this observation, calculate the partial pressure of PCl5 and PCl3 in the flask at 252 C. Molecular substances are generally insoluble in polar solvents like water. CH2F2 / CF4 4. The P stands for Phosphorus, while the Cl represents chloride. To predict which of two substances would have stronger intermolecular forces, compare the strength of the London dispersion forces. Phase changes and intermolecular forces; Vapor pressure of water. London forces II. AsCl3 / SO3 3. The intermolecular forces present in CH 3 NH 2 include which of the following? I. 34×10 −30 C ·m. How to Determine the Polarity of a Molecule. Dipole-dipole attractions result from the electrostatic attraction of the partial negative end of one dipolar molecule for the partial positive end of another. State the type of structure present in each case and explain why the melting point of diamond is so high. The molecule thus gets distorted and the bond angle is reduced to 107° from 109. A represents a central atom, while X. only for molecules with hydrogen bonding. London Dispersion b. Intermolecular forces include London (dispersion) forces, dipole-dipole forces and hydrogen bonding. a London dispersion forces b Hydrogen bonding c Dipole dipole interactions d from CHM 113 at Arizona State University. We know that while carbon dioxide is a non-polar molecule, we can still freeze it (and we can also freeze all other non-polar substances). Organic alcohols - Comparing reactions of propan-1-ol and -2-ol. H 2 S bent b. Shapes of some simple molecules. strength of their intermolecular forces would be — A X < Y < Z B Y < X < Z C Z < Y < X D Y < Z < X 9 15 What is the empirical formula of the compound with the molecular formula A CH B C D CH 26 CH 4 CH 2 CH 612? VA516984_Chem Released 3/3/10 9:04 AM Page 9. These two are the following: Dipole-Dipole Forces and London Forces. , New Delhi) Class-XI IIT-JEE Advanced Chemistry Study Package Session: 2014-15 Office: Rajopatti, Dumra Road, Sitamarhi (Bihar), Pin-843301 Ph. gif This diagram shows the sp 3 d hybridization in SCl 4. are best characterized as London dispersion forces. The 5 means that there are 5 Cl atoms bonded to the Phosphorus atom, which represents the prefix Pentain the Pentachloride. BF 3, BeCl 2, PCl 5, I 3-, SF 6, XeF. about intermolecular forces and compare their strengths. In “U”: r-1. The fundamental difference between states of matter is the strength of the intermolecular forces of attraction. Explain in terms of intermolecular forces, why I 2 is a solid, Br 2 is a liquid but Cl 2 and F 2 are gases even though they are all Halogens. b) Stronger than London forces. answer choices intermolecular (covalent); intramolecular (dipole-dipole). When an atom loses on or more electrons it becomes negatively charged and we call it a cation. Because CCl4 is non polar. The force of attraction that exists between Na+ and H 2O is called a(n) _____ interaction. Indicate which type(s) of IMFs are present between the following molecules If the polarity is not indicated, use your notes and/or you have determined the polarity in Part E of the homework. Gases can be entered as molar volumes (n/V), or moles of gas per liter of mixture. Equilibrium Constant and Units MCQ Questions Online PDF Download. 11 - LIQUIDS, SOLIDS & INTERMOLECULAR FORCES Page 6. O3 --> O2 + O ΔH = negative Since the decomposition of O3 increases the number and freedom of particles, entropy also increases. 7 g PCl3 with excess chlorine? 3. Lecture-10 Non-covalent interactions 1: Intermolecular Forces; Lecture-11 Non-covalent interactions 2 : Structures of Liquids; Module-3 Molecular Spectroscopy. Lecture-12 Electronic Spectroscopy; Lecture-13 Rotational and Vibrational Spectroscopy; Lecture-14 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy; Lecture-15 Other spectroscopic methods; Module-4 Solid. ! Balance of forces Intermolecular forces –work to hold particles together. Bonding & Intermolecular Forces (Chapter 7) 11. Indicate the most important type of intermolecular attraction responsible for solvation in each of the following solutions: the solutions in Figure 2; methanol, CH 3 OH, dissolved in ethanol, C 2 H 5 OH; methane, CH 4, dissolved in benzene, C 6 H 6 the polar halocarbon CF 2 Cl 2 dissolved in the polar halocarbon CF 2 ClCFCl 2 O 2 (l) in N 2 (l). CH 3-O-CH 3 Dipole-dipole forces. When the equilibrium had been reached the concentration of PCl 5 (g) was 0. Part E: Intermolecular Forces Answer the following questions about intermolecular forces 1) What is the difference between intramolecular forces and intermolecular forces? 2) List intramolecular forces in order from strongest to weakest. If so it likely has the strongest intermolecular forces. The greater the difference in these charges, the more ionic the bond will be. pdf), Text File (. 10 Topic 6 Microscopic World II Unit 24 Bond polarity and intermolecular forces 11 24. Question: 1) For The Following, Determine What Intermolecular Forces Are Present And If There Is A Net Dipole Moment A) SeBr2 B) CS2 C) AlFCl2 D) XeOF2 E) CHF3 F) PCl5 G) SCl4 H) OF2 I) LiF. So, what kinds of intermolecular forces are there? There's dipole-dipole, induced dipole, hydrogen bonding, and london dispersion forces. The London dispersion force, the force between two nonpolar molecules, is the weakest of the intermolecular forces. Two of these bonds are to other ring carbon atoms, and two bonds are made to non-ring atoms. Give an example for each type of intermolecular force. The IMFs in propanone are dispersion and dipole-dipole. AP Chemistry Practice Test: Chs. Van der Waals forces: the two weakest intermolecular attractions Dipole interactions: Polar molecules are attracted to one another (oppositely charged parts). Examples: NF 3, NO, NO 2, H 2 O, SF 6, PCl 5, H 2 S, NH 3, N 2 O 4 etc. When an atom loses on or more electrons it becomes negatively charged and we call it a cation. (4) (b) When aluminium chloride reacts with chloride ions, as shown by the equation below, a co-ordinate bond is formed. The dipole moment is a vector quantity that has both magnitude and direction. Gaya tersebut dapat berupa kohesi antara molekul serupa, seperti contohnya pada tegangan permukaan, atau adhesi antara molekul tak serupa, contohnya pada kapilaritas. KI and MgO vs. Considering only this argument for Ar, CH 4, and H 2O, CH 4 should have the lowest boiling point and Ar the highest, with the. Predict the molecular shape of each of the following: a. The usual response is that London dispersion forces are the weakest of the intermolecular forces, but that is not always the case. 6 Lattice Structures in Crystalline Solids; Key Terms; Key Equations; Summary; Exercises. For example if the first one does exhibit only London forces and all the others dipole-dipole forces, enter LDDD. 2 Properties of Liquids; 10. With "HCl", a polar molecule, all we say is that the predominant intermolecular force is dipole dipole. Since the intermolecular attractive forces differ in the two substances, the enthalpy of vaporization will differ. Summary of Intermolecular Forces Figure 10. of intermolecular forces. MCAT Intermolecular Forces Review. Compare the relative strengths of attractions between the following intermolecular forces: dipole-dipole vs. CS2 / H2O 2. Gases can be entered as molar volumes (n/V), or moles of gas per liter of mixture. (b) Actually at 252 C the PCl5 is partially dissociated according to the following equation: PCl5(g) ( PCl3(g) + Cl2(g) The observed pressure is found to be 1. determining number of lone electron pairs, molecule shape, VSEPR theory, bond + molecule polarity, intermolecular forces and affect on physical properties. Intermolecular forces observed between atoms and molecules can be described phenomenologically as occurring between permanent and instantaneous dipoles, as outlined above. I say this because an intermolecular force is the force of attraction between molecules. 00 L of solution 25. txt) or read online for free. Sometimes, molecules are bonded in a way that unevenly distributes charge and creates 2 poles (1 positive and 1 negative). Dipole-Dipole Forces Many molecules contain bonds that fall between the extremes of ionic and covalent bonds. Question 2 Roman numerals are used when the compound contains what PCl 5? Question 22 Phosphorus pentachloride. Carbon tetrachloride, also known as tetrachloromethane, is a compound containing carbon and chlorine. A higher boiling point suggests stronger intermolecular forces of attraction. hydrogen bonding A) I, II, III, and IV B) I and III C) I, III, and IV D) I and II E) II and IV Ans: C. Therefore, it will experience London Dispersion Forces which are forces that exist among non-polar molecules. The force of gravity depends on the mass of the object—the heavier the object, the harder it is to overcome the pull of gravity. Review intermolecular forces; Hydrogen Bonding; Explain C 4 H 10 O demonstration; Examples of intermolecular forces in solutions. 2: weak intermolecular forces or Van der Waals forces Diamonds: macromolecular structure Strong / covalent bonds (½) need to be broken (½) 1 1 (c) diamond: compact while graphite: layered / hexagon structure ½ x 2 OR diamond: 4 bonds per C atom; graphite 3 bonds per C atom ½ x 2. melting point of an ionic solid 9. The bonding force most responsible for this large solubility is best described as A An interionic attraction B an ion-dipole attraction C a dipole-dipole attraction D a hydrogen bond 17. This means that all attraction forces inside the molecule rely on weak London Dispersion Forces which only strengthen in far larger atoms. Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure - Get complete Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure Chemistry study material notes including formulas, Equations, definition, books, tips and tricks, practice questions, preparation plan and more on Entrance360. Use L for London forces, D for dipole-dipole forces, H for H-bonds and I for ion-ion forces. Since H 2O shows the strongest intermolecular force it will require the higher temperature for its vapour pressure to reach 1 atm and so will have the highest boiling point. Types of Intermolecular Forces N 7 14. A) Kr B) NH 3 C) HCl D) CH 3OH E) H 2S. 5 degree angles. Ion-Dipole d. The surface tension of water at various temperatures is given in the data table below. Dipole-dipole Interactions. Therefore this molecule is non-polar. Answer (a) 6. Tags: Question 22. CH 3 COOH + PCl 5. 4 States of Matter 4. Indicate which type(s) of IMFs are present between the following molecules If the polarity is not indicated, use your notes and/or you have determined the polarity in Part E of the homework. If you are having trouble with Chemistry, Organic, Physics, Calculus, or Statistics, we got your back! Our videos will help you understand concepts, solve your homework, and do great on your exams. ) VSEPR Intro. 4)H2O(l) is expected to have a higher boiling point than H2S(l). Molecules are held together by attractive and intramolecular forces (bonds within a molecule). Difluoromethane (HFC32) is under development as a replacement for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in some refrigeration applications. LESSON 6: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES IMFS 1. Bonding _____ than intermolecular forces. gif This diagram shows the sp 3 d hybridization in SCl 4. The dipole moment is a vector quantity that has both magnitude and direction. The units of k are determined by units of concentration and the various powers; thus, they depend on the reaction. Calculate ∆H for the reaction: C2H4 (g) + H2 (g) → C2H6 (g), from the following data. mobile valence electrons C. Intermolecular Forces and Liquids and Solids -12 There are attractive intermolecular in all solids, liquids (called condensed phases) and gases. , the higher the melting or boiling point, the stronger the intermolecular forces. Tags: PCl 5. The 5 means that there are 5 Cl atoms bonded to the Phosphorus atom, which represents the prefix Pentain the Pentachloride. Simplified Explanation. only for molecules with polar bonds. ANSWER: A Since sodium is in the first column, it gets one dot. Polar bonds create a dipole-dipole intermolecular force. For example, since the PCl 5 molecule has been determined to have D3h symmetry, the chart tells us that it has trigonal bipyramidal geometry using VSEPR and Lewis dot structure notation. Classify the following solids in different categories based on the nature of intermolecular forces operating in them: Potassium sulphate, tin, benzene, urea, ammonia, water, zinc sulphide, graphite, rubidium, argon, silicon carbide. It has molar mass 46. D) The metals involved create uneven bonding with the non-metals. 22 g/mol = 0. 06226-252314 , Mobile:9431636758, 9931610902 Website: www. For an organic liquid, such as acetone, the intermolecular dipole-dipole interactions are significantly weaker. Do not conduct heat or electricity. Intermolecular Forces and Liquids and Solids -12 There are attractive intermolecular in all solids, liquids (called condensed phases) and gases. 9 PCl3 का गलनांक PCl5 से कम क्यों है?. Intermolecular Forces One of the forces holding molecules in liquid form is gravity. A higher boiling point suggests stronger intermolecular forces of attraction. Simplified Explanation. 6 Lattice Structures in Crystalline Solids; Key Terms; Key Equations; Summary; Exercises. Predict the molecular shape of each of the following: a. With "HCl", a polar molecule, all we say is that the predominant intermolecular force is dipole dipole. As the size of the atom or structure increases, so does the. They will interact with each other to model the relative strengths of the three types of intermolecular forces. SO 2 bent (lone pair on S, two double bonds) d. ion-dipole forces III. The molecule XCl 5– has a square pyramidal shape. Polar molecules have a permanent dipole moment. Intermolecular hydrogen bonding leads to the solid state of water, ice, being less dense than its liquid state. (b) Give one argument for why a student might expect the boiling point of PCl. (C) the higher the vapor pressure. Predict the molecular shape of each of the following: a. The geometry which allows three sets to be as far apart as possible is a planar triangular geometry. increases, while the intermolecular forces increase in strengthremains at 0°C until it has completely melted. AP Chemistry study material. PCl5 COS XeO3 SeBr2. A) Covalent molecular materials rely on weak electrostatic forces holding the ions together. (4) (b) When aluminium chloride reacts with chloride ions, as shown by the equation below, a co-ordinate bond is formed. Lecture-10 Non-covalent interactions 1: Intermolecular Forces; Lecture-11 Non-covalent interactions 2 : Structures of Liquids; Module-3 Molecular Spectroscopy. The first is actually the most important, or the primary reason for density difference between substances. 22 g/mol = 0. txt) or read online for free. H 2, O 2, Cl 2 gases, Br 2 liquid, P is P 4 and S is S 8 solid covalent molecules. Which of the following atoms could be X? A) O B) P C) Xe D) S. Open Education Group – Socially responsive research that. The unit of the dipole moment is the debye, where 1 debye is 3. Similar to London's scattering forces, dipole-dipole interactions establish a higher boiling point for haloalkanes compared to alkanes with the same number of carbons (Curtis, 2016). COVALENT BONDS Intermolecular Forces (IMF): Attractions BETWEEN MOLECULES. following properties:. Grade Level. Carbon tetrachloride, also known as tetrachloromethane, is a compound containing carbon and chlorine. Intermolecular force theory best explains A. When an atom loses on or more electrons it becomes negatively charged and we call it a cation. Because the molecules are uncharged the only forces of attraction present are Van der Waals forces/London Dispersion forces. TWO factors are important: “q 1•q 2” and “r” Compare the melting points of: LiF vs. 00 atmosphere. The dipole moment is a vector quantity that has both magnitude and direction. Van der Waals forces: the two weakest intermolecular attractions Dipole interactions: Polar molecules are attracted to one another (oppositely charged parts). Real molecules exhibit attractive forces, thus leading to fewer collisions with the walls and a lower pressure. Two of the liquids, n-pentane and 1-butanol, had nearly the same molecular weights, but significantly different T values. van der Waals) forces. Circle and connect the. Ion-Ion Forces Na+ Na+ Ionic Forces: Coulomb’s Law ןולוק קוחBeweenTwo Charges r q q U k 1 2 dr dU F 2 1 2 r q q F k Note: In the Force equation: r-2. Intermolecular Forces! Intermolecular forces are attractive forces between molecules. Gaya tersebut dapat berupa kohesi antara molekul serupa, seperti contohnya pada tegangan permukaan, atau adhesi antara molekul tak serupa, contohnya pada kapilaritas. London Dispersion b. Polar bonds create a dipole-dipole intermolecular force. Calculate the molarity of a solution that contains 67. Survismeter tracks non-covalent interactions,- authorSTREAM Presentation. - Strong forces (Hydrogen bonds / Intermolecular forces) - Turns into gas --> looking at boiling point - When the water is boiling, ethanol boils at 20 degrees and boils off --> vapourises and can't smell it - Such low boiling point you must seperate it (reflux). 66 sulfonyl transfer reagent O sulfonylation of alcohols 2 for conversion to chlorides 3 or intermolecular 4 and intramolecular 5 displacements vicinal diols for epoxidation 6 1 3 diols for oxetane formation 7 carboxylic acids for esterification. H2Se H2S H2Po H2Te Chem128 Dr. 2 Electronegativity 24. Hydrogen Peroxides AX form is an AX2E2, meaning that is bent with 109. gaseous HCl molecules Intermolecular forces are attractive forces between. high electronegativity B. , New Delhi) Class-XI IIT-JEE Advanced Chemistry Study Package Session: 2014-15 Office: Rajopatti, Dumra Road, Sitamarhi (Bihar), Pin-843301 Ph. ΔH is negative (exothermic). At equilibrium, 0. Answer (a) 6. I'll tell you the polar or nonpolar list below. 5)The molecules in HCCl3(l) would be expected to have stronger intermolecular forces than those in HCF3(l).
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